Music Theory – An Introduction to Modes

There are quite a few misconceptions about modes and how they work. Much of the confusion comes from the word "mode" itself, since it implies more of a reference to another scale than an actual scale in its own right. We've all heard, or read, and half understood, that modes are based on this or that scale (usually the major scale), and that all you need to do is play from a certain degree (note) up or down the scale one octave to the same note and you get the mode in question. And, of course, when you tried it, you didn't hear any difference so you gave up!

The problem with this over-simplification (though technically it is true) is that it overlooks the most important aspect of modes and possibly of music itself: context! If you are playing over a C drone or C major chord progression, and your ear hears C major, you can play E Phrygian or F Lydian (two modes "based" on the C major scale) until you're blue in the face, but you'll never hear anything but a C major sound (see Ex. 1)! Context is everything: if you play, over that same C drone, a C Lydian or C Phrygian scale (mode) then you definitely will hear a change and a different flavor (see Ex. 2). Sometimes the flavor change is slight and sometimes it's radical! Ex.1: C Major, E Phrygian, F Lydian over a C drone: The C major sound is unbroken even though E phrygian and F Lydian are being played

Ex 2: C Phrygian, C Mixolydian, and C Lydian over a C drone: You should hear three distinct flavors

Static versus Changing Harmonies

In this article we won't be dealing with modes in the context of jazz or changing harmonies. We'll be concentrating on static or "modal" harmonies. This means that even though there may be more than one chord, the harmony, or mode, or key center will stay the same (or in the case of a drone: neutral).

The reason for this is that in non-modal jazz there's usually a quick succession of chords and changing key centers, and modes in this context just fly by, making it difficult to feel or hear any kind of flavor or get any kind of appreciation of the mode. Plus modes in this traditional jazz context are often just a means of playing the right notes (playing in) or playing "wrong" notes (playing dissonant or purposely playing "wrong" notes) over a given chord.

By taking our time and playing over static modal harmonies, or just a drone, we'll be able to hear and eventually recognize the different flavors of each mode.

Scale or Mode?

I won't be making any difference between scale and mode because they are virtually the same thing. For all intents and purposes: any mode is also a scale (sort of like the particle / wave duality of light); and any scale could be considered a mode of another related scale. For the moment, the goal is to try and simplify things and cut away some of the jargon.

A Few Basics

Ideally, this article's aim is to be a «no nonsense» approach to modes, without there being too much technical stuff or theory. And while the attempt was made to try and make it as straightforward as possible, there are, of course, a certain number of basic things you probably need to know.

To play the scales (modes) that are given here in E, you need know nothing other than where the notes are found on your instrument. But if you want to transpose them to other keys (something you should learn to do) you'll need to know something about intervals, or at least know the difference between a half-step and a whole-step. Since the modes we'll be dealing with are related to the major scale, it's a good idea to learn how a major scale is constructed, if you don't already know.

The Formula for a Major Scale is as Follows:

Ascending: Root (any note) + WS + WS + HS + WS + WS + WS + HS (and you should end up an octave above the starting note)

WS = whole-step, HS = half-step (for a guitarist or bassist, HS = 1 fret, WS = 2 frets)

If you follow this formula you'll get a major scale. A major scale has the following intervals within it (all related to the root):

Between root and second note: Major 2nd

Between root and third note: Major 3rd

Between root and fourth note: Perfect 4th

Between root and fifth note: Perfect 5th

Between root and sixth note: Major 6th

Between root and seventh note: Major 7th

In the key of C Major: CDEFGABC

In the key of E Major: EF # G # ABC # D # E

When I speak about how each of the modes differs from the major scale I'll be making reference to these intervals.

Once you understand these intervals and how modes are constructed, you should then be able to transpose these scales, to any other key (tonal center). Or, of course, if you're a bassist or guitarist you could just take the easy way out and move the fingerings up or down the neck. But this won't help you in the long run.

Important Points:

The mode examples: Throughout this article I've used E as the tonal center. The reasons for doing so are twofold:

1. It's important to get away from the key of C and the strong associations and confusion of the modes in this Key (especially for keyboardists). We often see the diatonic modes of C major listed one after the other in diagrams. And when we play them in order (starting with C major), we've already got the C major sound in our head and so we don't hear the mode being played, just more of C Major! Therefore the crucial element for each mode, context, is lost.

2. By putting the examples in E, I'm hoping that it will be easier for Guitarists and Bassists to use their low E string as a drone while they play the scales / modes on top of it (It won't make any difference to keyboardists). This will come in handy when no other drone source is available.

The Progressions: As stated above, everything depends on context, and Rhythm, especially harmonic rhythm (an oft neglected topic) plays a crucial role in musical context. These progressions need to be played in such a way (rhythmically) that there will be no doubt about the tonal center. This doesn't necessarily mean starting on the I chord (though this is often the case), but you should at all times feel the tonal center (in this case E) and should always hear this tonal center as being the final resting place of the piece / improvisation, even if you choose "not" to end on the I chord (Tonic).

Bass Drone: The chord progressions given here can (and should) all be played with, in this case, an E bass / drone on the bottom. So if, for example, I say in E Lydian, a typical progression is E – F # – E, you should also try it as E – F # / E (F # with an E in the bass) – E. It's even preferable at this stage to play it like that since it will give you even a stronger feeling for the flavor of the mode, and will give you new ideas for chords with different bass notes other than their roots.

About Chords In a Given Scale / Mode: This is very important because you need to know which chords are native (diatonic) to which mode so you don't play any chords that are outside the scale. I won't be going into how these chords are derived for the moment because it involves a little more theory than I have space for in this article. I'll be dealing with this theme at a latter time. For the moment, try transposing the given chord progression examples into other keys.


In this first part we'll be dealing with three of the diatonic modes: Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian. "Diatonic" just means that they share the same notes as the Major scale (which can also be considered a mode: Ionian). I suggest taking your time with each mode before jumping on to the next one. Too much information kills information! Once you start to feel comfortable with them you can mix them up and play one after the other to get a feeling for each of them.

I also strongly suggest recording yourself (or someone else) playing the different modes, and see if you can tell which mode is being played back … hearing is crucial!


Phrygian is one of the scales that differs the most from the basic major scale. For the moment you don't need to know that Phrygia was a kingdom of Anatolia or other interesting historical stuff. It should be mentioned, however, that Phrygian is the third mode (of the major scale; starting on the third scale degree of a major scale). Even though I've said it's necessary to see each mode as a separate entity, it is important to remember that these diatonic modes are related to each other.

The Phrygian mode has the following formula: 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7, when compared to the starting pitch's major scale (eg E Phrygian compared to E major). It has a minor triad (chord) as its tonic (though cadences will often end on a major chord …, more on that below).

So E Phrygian is: EFGABCDE (related to C Major)

Compare with E Major: EF # G # ABC # D # E

What you should try to hear, and keep in mind, is that the characteristic note (or interval) of Phrygian is especially the b2 (in this case, F) but also the b7 (D) and b3 (G, which makes it a "minor" mode). Try to get that sound in your ear. The b2 b3 b7 Phrygian flavor is quite easy to recognize. You might say it sounds spanish, or medieval, or gypsy, oriental … whatever! The thing is, you've heard this sound before, you recognize it and now you should try to recognize it every time you hear it and therefore see it for what it is: Phrygian.

Play around with the scale until it becomes familiar. Keep a low E drone going as you improvise with it, or try to find melodies. Then try going in and out of it by playing E major for a little while and then E Phrygian. Listen and "feel" how they differ … this is important. You need to get this sound into your ear and your musical vocabulary.

Progressions in E Phrygian

An important thing to note about Phrygian progressions is that they often end (cadence) or start on a major chord / triad. Since this major triad isn't in the mode itself (b3 becomes natural 3), if you're soloing you might have to alter that note, and this momentarily gives you another scale (a harmonic minor scale or what some people call a Phrygian dominant scale or Spanish gypsy scale). I won't go into this scale here, but it's a nice one to play around with (often heard in flamenco / Spanish style music).

Typical Chords:

Just as there are characteristic notes or intervals in each mode, there are also characteristic chords and chord progressions in each mode. In Phrygian the characteristic chord is, of course, the major flat II (F major chord in E Phrygian) and also the minor flat VII (D minor in E Phrygian). To a lesser extent the major flat III (G major in E Phrygian) and the minor IV (A minor in E Phrygian) are also quite characteristic when used in the same progression.

Some typical progressions in E Phrygian are:

  • A min – G – F – E (min or usually Maj)
  • E (min or usually Maj) – F (maj7) – E (min or usually Maj)
  • Dmin – E (min or usually Maj)
  • Pieces in Phrygian:

    • Pink Floyd – "Set the Controls for the Heart of the Sun"
    • The "Ben-Hur Theme" (the melody is in Phrygian while the chords go in and out of Phrygian)
    • A lot of Flamenco / spanish music (though, as stated before, the cadences on the major Tonic (I chord) alter the scale and therefore it's not a pure Phrygian)
    • Led Zeppelin – "Kashmir": The end Progression (G min to A) is a typical Phrygian progression
    • Jefferson Airplane – "White Rabbit" (in E Phrygian except for the fleeting Bb chord)
    • Björk- "Hunter" (with major Tonic) and "I've seen it all"
    • Massive Attack – "Future Proof" (with major Tonic)


    The Lydian scale only differs from a major scale by one note, but this note is so characteristic of Lydian's flavor that it makes all the difference. This flavor, and difference, comes from the # 4. In a major scale the 4th is a perfect 4th from the tonic, and therefore the introduction of the # 4, though not radical in itself, gives a new flavor to the scale, transforming it from a normal Major to Lydian.

    E Lydian: EF # G # A # BC # D # E (that's a lot of sharps and is relative to B major)

    Compare with E Major: EF # G # ABC # D # E (note the A natural)

    As with Phrygian, play around with this mode and try to get it into your ear. It's interesting and useful to alternate it with E major. You need to hear the difference that the # 4 makes. Get a Low E drone happening and alternate between the two. After a while try the E Phrygian too.

    Progressions in Lydian:

    Progressions in Lydian are also very characteristic of the Lydian sound. Many people have tried describing this sound with words like "airy" "magical" or "wondrous" etc. etc., and all cinema composers have used it to these ends, but the best thing, once again, is to hear it and make the connection for yourself.

    Typical Chords

    The characteristic chords of Lydian are the ones that contain the # 4. These include: the major II chord (F # major in E Lydian) and to a lesser extent the min VII (D # min in E Lydian) and the V maj7 chord (Bmaj7 in E Lydian).

    Some Typical Progression in E Lydian:

    • E – F # – E (as mentioned above, try keeping the E in the bass over all chords)
    • Emaj7 # 11 vamp
    • E – Bmaj7 – E
    • E – D # m (7) – E

    Pieces in Lydian:

    • "Maria" and many other pieces from "West Side Story"
    • Sting – "When we dance": has a very clear example in the melody of major going to Lydian
    • Led Zeppelin – "Dancing Days": the opening riff is Lydian (After that it's in Phrygian until the A major chord)
    • John Williams – ET theme and countless other movie moments and themes
    • The Simpsons TV Theme


    Mixolydian is the 5th diatonic mode, and like the Lydian mode, only differs from the Major scale by one note. This note (b7 – D natural in E) is also sufficient to give a strong characteristic flavor to the Mixolydian sound. This Mixolydian sound has a very Renaissance or Celtic flavor to it. This is because it was / is prevalent in these styles. Also Indian music, uses this scale quite often (as it does numerous others) and therefore it's possible to get an Indian raga type flavor out of it (especially if you omit the 2nd (F # in E) and the 6th (C # in E) .

    E Mixolydian: EF # G # ABC # DE (related to A major)

    Compare with E Major: EF # G # ABC # D # E

    Once again, get an E drone going and play around with the scale. Try giving it a celtic or renaissance type rhythm to see if can you hear the connection. The characteristic notes here are the major third (G #) and above all the flat 7 (D).

    Typical Chords:

    The characteristic chords of Mixolydian are those that include the b7. These are: the flat VII chord (D major in E Mixolydian) and the minor V (B min (7) in E Mixolydian).

    Typical progressions in E Mixolydian:

    • E – D – E (like before, try keeping an E in the bass at all times)
    • E – Bmin (7) – E

    Pieces in Mixolydian:

    • Holst – "The Planets" – "Jupiter": The famous theme starting at measure 108
    • Simply Red – "Holding Back the Years"
    • Countless Renaissance and Celtic Pieces
    • Sting – Intro to "I Was Brought To My Senses"
    • Beatles – "Tomorrow Never Knows" (not all notes are used so it can be argued that it's not truly mixolydian)
    • Beatles – "Got To Get You Into My Life" (The A section)
    • Beatles – "Norwegian Wood" (A section)
    • Spinal Tap Movie – "Stonehenge" section: the melody played on the mandolin;)
    • Michael Jackson – "Don't Stop 'till You Get Enough"
    • Jimi Hendrix – "Third Stone from the Sun": the main melody is in E mixolydian


The modes presented here are just 3 out of the 7 diatonic modes. Two of the other 4 should already be familiar to you. They are: Ionian, which is nothing more or less than the major scale; and Aeolian, which is the minor (natural) scale. This leaves: Dorian, which is very similar to the natural minor scale, and Locrian, which is probably one of the least used scales / modes in music (except maybe to solo over certain chords).

For the moment, you should concentrate on these three modes, and make sure you learn and hear them well before moving on to other stuff. Just like with other aspects of music, you need to build strong foundations. Learning too many scales at a time will only ensure that you play none well.

Try to remember that every mode has it's distinctive flavor. And it's usually just one or two notes (intervals) that create that distinctive flavor. It's these notes that you should try to recognize. For example, if you listen to Sting's «when we dance»; at first it just sounds like a basic major-scale sound, but then he sings that # 4 and everything just changes. Just that one note gives the whole song a different feel and flavor. And this is important: each mode has a different spice or flavor to it, and they often have an effect on our emotions. Movie composers know that well, and have been using changing modes to play with or heighten our emotions since the beginning of cinema.

If you decide to jump ahead and look at other modes, don't forget about context! It's good to know what scale each mode is derived from, but remember that if you're playing mode X (that is related to or derived from mode Y) that you should be hearing an X tonality (try a drone on X), and not Y. If you're hearing Y as the tonal center while trying to play mode X, then you're just wasting your time.

As stated before, listening and recognizing are crucial. Record yourself playing different modes and see if you can tell which one is being played and where the characteristic notes are. Also, a good way of seeing if you have understood something is to try to explain it to others. So go and find someone patient (preferably a musician) and see if you can teach them what you've learned.

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TOEFL IBT Speaking Practice to Help You Score Higher Than 25/30

Scoring high on the speaking section of the TOEFL exam can be a game changer for many healthcare professionals, for it means they can complete their licensing requirements to become pharmacists, nurses, doctors, physical therapists, and dentists. However, before getting that magic score of 26+, these students (and maybe you!) will need TOEFL iBT Speaking Practice in three areas.

First of all, look for opportunities to speak English to native speakers. Obviously, this type of interaction will help you to improve your speaking abilities. If you are unable to find a native speaker of English, Google search Toastmasters International to see if you can find a club in your city. If you are so lucky to have a Toastmasters, you can become part of the club, and soon you will begin giving presentations weekly with the support of others in your club. In addition to improving your speaking abilities, you will develop leadership skills to help you succeed in your job.

Second of all, to further improve, you will need practice with TOEFL iBT speaking topics. Many TOEFL books will have topics, and many Online TOEFL Courses will also have topics for you to practice. Or, you can create some of your own by making a list of general speaking topics of people you admire, places you enjoy going to, and things you enjoy doing.

Example 1: Describe a person who is important. Then explain why that person is important to you.

Example 2: Describe a place you visited as a child. Explain a favorite memory you had while visiting that place.

Example 3: Describe a recreational activity that you enjoying doing. Explain why you like this activity so much.

As you record your voice answering these questions, think of a specific example such as a parent, your grandmother’s house, or hiking; limit your preparation time to about 15 to 30 seconds as you answer the speaking prompts; and speak for about 45 to 60 seconds on each topic. Try writing down three verbs and three adjectives relevant to the topic, and be sure to use the words as you speak.

Third of all, be sure that you record your voice so that you become comfortable using a microphone. As you record your voice answering the speaking tasks, speak clearly with good pronunciation and tone. Opening your mouth more widely than normal, speak with authority and confidence. Instead of speaking word by word, speak in thought groups. A thought group consists of about 4-5 content words such as nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. To help you understand this concept, take a 250 word reading passage and mark the thought groups, and then read the passage aloud paying close attention to how you are grouping and phrasing the ideas. Be sure that you do NOT read the passage word by word.

To further help you improve your pronunciation, go to National Public Radio at which you can get transcripts and audio recordings of news reports. Listen to the news reports and mark the pauses, stress, and tone. Once you are familiar with how the transcript should be read, then you can practice reading it by imitating the phrasal, stress, and tonal patterns

If you do this TOEFL iBT speaking practice for a few months, you will improve your speaking fluency, thereby helping you to reach your goal of getting 26+ points and most importantly to more clearly and coherently communicate with native English speakers.

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The 5 Indispensable Role Architects Play During Constructions

An architect is an individual who designs a building both visually and structurally. This is common knowledge. What is generally unknown to the public at large is their real role and responsibilities. One of the best architects in Chennai helped elucidate the part they play during construction.

Construction equates to complex and numerous tasks which means it is the duty of the architect to keep everything organised. From maintaining the records to holding the contracts in order, from budgeting details to meeting the deadline, their responsibilities are long and wide-ranging. Here are a few primary tasks they perform:

  • Project Discussion

Even before the design of the building or project is approved, the architects have to meet and discuss it with every vital member of the business or home. These conversations ensure that all technical complications are cleared before construction begins, a more economical approach is taken, and all opinions are considered. The process of project discussion, as undertaken by an architect, follows these steps:

  1. Understanding the vision and requirement of the client and making careful note of the expectations.
  2. Setting the anticipated financial limits, understanding the site and researching the planning regulations of the place, i.e., quantifying and qualifying the construction.
  3. Taking into consideration any limitation of the project and the site itself. Finding the possible answers to each issue and suggesting them to the client. In case needed, offering a new style of building or site.
  • Making of Drawings

Before breaking the ground for construction, detailed and massive design drawings are made. It is the task of the architect to prepare them. The sketches give a layout of the spaces within the building and around it. In plain words, the drawing reflects the actual appearance of the project. The designs ensure that:

  1. The client gets a feel of the construction.
  2. An estimate of material and time can be calculated.
  3. All errors are eliminated prior to the execution of work.
  4. The floor plan and the site plan are rendered clearly.
  5. The elevation and isometric view are clear.

The drawing of the design also comprises the ensuing responsibilities:

  1. Redesigning the building, if necessary. This includes creating a change to the scope so as to satisfy all codes, rules, and regulations.
  2. Explanation of the details of the design to the construction team.
  • Cost Estimation

After approval of the design sketches, a timescale is created along with estimated cost by the architect. It is one of the most vital jobs of the field because at all times the price has to be kept within the budget limits. If the estimate surpasses the maximum investment, the architect needs to re-visualise the building and make new plans. It is important to note here that the cost assessment provided by the architect can vary as per need:

  1. If the complete construction is under the purview of the architects, then they give the entire cost valuation.
  2. If part of the project is under their purview, then they estimate the cost of only that section.
  • Contract Proposals

After the plans are finalised and the budget agreed, construction contracts are bid. The architect helps the client in choosing the right contractors by advising them on the better options quality-wise and economically. Once a few contract proposals are shortlisted, it is the duty of the architect to compare them with the budget and client expectation and pick the best bid.

Furthermore, the work done by labourers and contracts is managed by the architect. He not only coordinates the entire construction activity but also guarantees that all codes and regulations comply. The architect also keeps an eye on the invoices submitted each month and makes sure that they correspond to the work completed.

  • Marketing & Promotion

The role of an architect doesn’t end with the finishing of construction. They need to market, advertise and promote their buildings. It is by taking their work to the public that they get more tenders and bids for new work. Ultimately, marketing becomes the key to a better career for them.

There is one more responsibility that architects undertaken in rare times. After completion of the job, they give the owner a manual which describes any repair or maintenance the project may require later on. This is not a common practice and happens on the insistence of the project owner.

A Few Extra Takeaways:

The functions of an architectural engineer and structural engineer are similar but have a unique distinction. The architects in chennai has a singular aim – to make the building more aesthetically pleasing. The objective of a structural engineer is to make it practical and durable.

The type of work, and roles an architect plays are defined by the contract agreement. In some, they have a superficial duty and in others, they are ingrained into every task and chore.

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A Career Beyond the Onitsha Kingdom


Onitsha Town situated in the east of the River Niger (original nomenclature: Onicha Ado n’Idu) is an ancient Kingdom of a most unique Nigerian people evolving since the 14th century with very rich culture and customs strengthened by the clear hierarchy and demarcation of responsibilities among traditional administrative cadres. At the apex of these cadres is an Obi whose majesty is levered by the able support and collaboration of distinct institutions led by chieftains called Ndi-Ichie.

Consequently, the various levels of administrations help to provide guidance to the Obi-in-Council in offering wise counsel while providing exemplary participatory democracy cutting across institutions of socio-cultural settings and other stakeholders like the Agbalanze-Onitsha (for the male gender), the Otu-Odu (for the female gender), and the Age-grade societies.

The compendium of rich Onitsha cultural heritage and unique institution of kingship is jealously held in MINDFUL perspective by the people who invariably arouse today the envy of many because, extraneous factors and pressures of present day modernity have not been able to diminish the importance and respect attached to the unique Onitsha Monarchical Stool.

From the foregoing therefore, it is no wonder that the Onitsha indigene is always distinguished and proud in their respective areas of endeavor no matter the place. That is synonymous with the lifestyle of one conscious of his heritage and core values. Such a person endeavors always to stand-out in the crowd.

Having said this much, it is pertinent at this juncture, to relate the prodigious Onitsha issues with the present concerns especially the topic of this paper: ‘A Career beyond the Onitsha Kingdom’.


The choice of this topic was made out of especial passion to positively impart my humble quota to the body of existing knowledge in child and youth development with emphasis on career. Furthermore, owing to the title given to this maiden magazine of the Onitsha-Ado Students Association of the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, I couldn’t help but make effort to present a paper in line with their VISION which in the present circumstance is, in my candid opinion, plausible.

Presently, two questions may come to mind. First is: what is a career? The second is: what is a career beyond the Onitsha Kingdom?

Very well then if you are as curious as I was when trying to put this paper together. Now let us try to make some clarifications.

2.1 A CAREER – there are different definitions of the term career ranging from that in the Chambers dictionary that expresses career as one’s professional life, progress in one’s job or progress through life generally. However, for the purpose of this paper, I would rather look at career from the UNESCO perspective thus:

“the interaction of work roles and other life roles over a person’s lifespan

including both paid and unpaid work in an individual’s life”.

The above definition by UNESCO suggests that People are apt to create career patterns as they make decisions about education, work, family and other life roles. Recall that it has been established that the Onitsha people have over the years jealously held on to their rich cultural heritage and unique kingship institution with a MINDFUL perspective that generally influence the interaction of their work roles and other life roles to the extent that envy is aroused in many a non Onitsha indigene.

The use of the term ‘MINDFUL’ is deliberate and pedagogical with a view to having the word expatiated in its alphabetical and adverbial contexts as an enumeration of guard-points to inform the choice of a career that will potentially accord prestige, pride and altitude beyond one’s kingdom’s borders. For example, the need that informed the conceptualization of a life beyond the Onitsha Kingdom can only be satisfied when every Onitsha youth (Undergraduates/Postgraduates alike) is able to mindful (ly) engage in interaction of work roles and other life roles based on some carefully created career patterns resulting from valid decisions made about education, work, family and even recreational roles.

To be mindful(ly) engaged in the preponderant analogy is therefore to be able to perform on consistent basis a self-assessment of one’s position in relation to:

  1. Motivation
  2. Interests
  3. Needs
  4. Demands
  5. Future
  6. Usefulness
  7. Learning
  8. Legacy
  9. Yield
  • Motivation – this is the underlying force that causes or stimulates an individual to act in ways that ordinarily would not have been evident. It is therefore very important that people put into perspective all aspects of a discipline, course of study or work role(s) that may be necessary from time to time to stimulate them into performing more than would ordinarily have been evident. That way, the individual may be able to reach beyond borders in his/her career. As a guide therefore, find below some specific aspects of a job to consider before making a choice:

    • Nature of the job – this includes the job description, the schedule of work, hours to be spent on the job, tools available for use on the job e.t.c.
    • Job prospects and advancement- as students and energetic youth, it will not be wise to expend all your youth crawling up the hierarchical ladder of Ranks in any organization. It is therefore important that you know well in advance the number of years you need to work before getting promoted. It is important also to know what you need to do on the job to facilitate promotion either rapid or regular.
    • Salary and other benefits – studies have revealed that one of the motivating factors for choosing a job is the economic benefit attached to that job. That notwithstanding, salaries and other benefits are also very important factors to consider.
    • Job hazards – as students, you should know that there is no job that does not have its hazards which by definition may refer to any danger, difficulties or harassment faced by a worker to the extent of posing a threat to the person’s life.

It can therefore be seen that with most of the guide-points enumerated above, a student can better be equipped to determine a career path that can best motivate him/her.

  • Interests – this is the desire to pay personal attention to details. It is the factor that delineates wants and affords a scale of preference according to order of priority. It has become obvious that people do very well in areas where they have interest. Interest counts a lot when going for a particular job because the assumption is that you will be able to perform to your satisfaction and contribute positively to society. Interest compels an individual to seek more knowledge and acquire new skills that invariably will accord him/her a distinguished position in the field and society.
  • Needs – this is the paradigm concerned with the study of societal needs and emerging trends in the economy of nations such that one is gingered and challenged to pursue a career path that will enable him/her to provide goods and/or services to meet those needs as they arise. This model affords the creation of Professional Identity or Niche.
  • Demands – it is important that intermittent studies be carried out to determine goods/services demand patterns. Having identified various societal needs as it were, a thorough demand analysis and/or trend analysis is necessary from time to time to equip the student or prospective worker with relevant market statistics that will inform a good choice of career.
  • Future – in making a choice of career, one ought to consider what the future holds for that particular job role(s). It is usually safer to have long-term maturation ventures in mind notwithstanding the fact that short-term maturation ventures usually provide daily expense funds. Talking about future, one should be cautious of unforeseen legislation and government fiscal policy that may not be favorable to certain disciplines or ventures in the long run.
  • Usefulness – a good career should be highly advantageous and able to serve helpful or practical purposes. This advantageous impact should be positively visible on various aspects of societal endeavors especially towards achieving:

    • Your personal goals
    • Your Organizational objectives
    • Dire yearnings of your local community
    • Overall National strategic objectives
  • Learning – this term may simply refer to the gaining of experience, knowledge or skill that will influence a near permanent change in one’s behavior. A good career therefore should be able to present diverse learning opportunities to the individual. Learning opportunities are motivational and Organizations that have the culture of training and re-training of personnel are more likely to attract more of seasoned professional workforce than their competitors. Through continuous learning you will be exposed to bodies of knowledge that will make you different from the rest of your peers thereby making you stand-out in the crowd.
  • Legacy – this to me is not just any word in the English dictionary but rather a transforming seed sown for positive reasons that will ultimately perpetuate existence. According to the Chambers Dictionary, it is something handed on or left unfinished by a past owner or predecessor. A good career therefore must accord an individual the opportunity to leave behind something that is worthwhile to society such that he/she will forever be remembered by it. This invariably is a kind of structure that must be in place to take one beyond the borders of his/her kingdom.
  • Yield – this is a function of the ability to produce a specified quantity of natural, artificial, material or financial products within a given time. A good career therefore should be able to produce expected returns and/or significant dividends to the individual, the Organization and the Community.

It is therefore very important that the Student or Youth should make valid self-assessment in relation to the foregoing in order to make a rational choice of career that will ultimately take him/her beyond the borders of his/her town. For the Onitsha-Ado Student therefore, a valid self-assessment in line with the aforementioned will enable him/her assume the right position in a career beyond the Onitsha Kingdom.

2.2 A CAREER BEYOND THE ONITSHA KINGDOM – consequent upon the foregoing, one can confidently posit that a career beyond the Onitsha Kingdom is that career which will expose an individual to horizons outside the known prodigy of the Onitsha-Ado Monarchy because the career pattern has been mindfully created to ensure:

  • Motivation
  • Interest stimulus
  • Needs satisfaction
  • Demands analysis
  • Future relevance
  • Usefulness
  • Learning
  • Legacy
  • Yield

I wish to seize this opportunity to reiterate that choosing a good career rarely happens by accident but by an involved process of a mindfully engaged paradigm. You are all sons and daughters of a great monarchy of over six hundred years of remarkable standing. Kindly do the best you can to keep the flag flying no matter the perils or challenges.


In conclusion, you should please keep in mind this humble quote of mine:

“the dense and foggy cloud may temporarily blur the spontaneous visibility of a Star

but must ultimately give way for the glorious glamour of its dazzling twinkle”.

Remember always therefore that you are a Star from birth and heritage. Go on then and show forth the glorious glamour of your dazzling twinkle with a career beyond the Onitsha Kingdom.

Thank you.

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E-Commerce Web Application – Why Testing Is Important

It is extremely important to test mobile applications and e-commerce websites so that it will not compromise on several factors such as customer data security, user experience, secure transaction, mobile responsiveness and quick load time. In addition, the success of your e-commerce web application depends largely on smooth and proper functioning of these factors and should be free of bugs too. Thereby, you can give users an enjoyable and nice experience that would make them visit your app again for products and services.

Testing is inevitable to e-commerce success

We all know that users of e-commerce applications are spread worldwide as they deal with auctions, retail and wholesale, finance, manufacturing and marketing. Also, the fact that e-commerce industry is witnessing rapid growth for last few years cannot be ignored. Organizations and businesses should devote more time in testing their website app and make it an indispensable part of their future e-commerce apps development. Here we bring to you a few important things on how to test an e-commerce website application.

Testing functionality of an e-commerce application

An e-commerce mobile or web app has four vital elements in the structure:

Product description page – It comprises of product images, add to cart feature, product title, product comparison, description, related products and additional product details, to name a few.

Main pages – These include press releases page, homepage, about us page, privacy policy page, special offers, sitemap pages, among others.

Shopping Cart – Cash on delivery option, products list view, card payment, select delivery option, pay now option, remove product from the list, etc.

Product or Category Type Pages – The product page comprises of options akin to product type, size and color. Also, there is sorting feature to filter out products on the basis of size, model, price, etc. In addition, there is also “add to wish list” and “add to cart” feature in the category pages.

Before starting with the functionality testing, it is important to understand the e-commerce application or website completely. The above listed features are synonymous to all e-commerce applications, yet most of them are customized according to business specifications.

Testing flow of an e-commerce application

The testing of the workflow of an e-commerce web application includes the following:

• Check out process

• Signup and login options

• Sorting feature

• Search functionality

• Payment processing and payment gateway

• Applying filters for the selection of products

• Product review posting feature

• Invoice generation and order number

• Remove or add functionality in the shopping cart

Performing vulnerability as well as security assessments

Given that e-commerce mobile or web applications have valuable information of the client, including banking and personal data, it becomes crucial to perform security testing to check for vulnerability and security issues in them.

Checking Compatibility with Web Browsers

It is essential that e-commerce applications work across all browsers such as Opera, Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer and Opera, among others. Run browser compatibility test to ensure that your customers can use it without nay hassle.


Running testing of an e-commerce web application is a must and common part of all e-commerce web or mobile app development. On the basis of your preference and need, you can look for an e-commerce web and customized portal development company. Irrespective of the venture you are planning to start, a smooth functioning portal or web application is crucial to its success.

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Guitar Music Theory For Kids and Beginners – Part 1 Intervals

What is an interval? To put it simply, it is the distance between 2 notes. These distances are the building blocks of all scales and chords.

How intervals relate to each other in a chord or scale can also actually affect its “mood”. Minor chords and scales “feel” different than major chords and scales. Anything minor has a “sadder” sound that anything “major”.

Now, earlier, I used the phrase “to put is simply”. But interval theory is really a complicated subject. Because this is an article for beginning students, I’m going to try to simplify this for now.

There are two things that make up an interval — the “number”, and the “quality”. An interval number is the distance between any two letter names (ABCDEFGA). The quality of an interval involves a lot of complicated definitions.

The “number” part of an interval is the numeric distance from one note to another: I’m only starting from the letter A because it is the first letter of the musical alphabet. I could start from any letter.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Looking at this:

B is the 2nd of A

C is the 3rd of A

D is the 4th of A

E is the 5th of A

F is the 6th of A

G is the 7th of A

A is the octave (8) of A

Not only that, but

C is not only the 3rd of A, but also the 2nd of B. (B C D E F G A B)

E is not only the 5th of A, but also the 3rd of C (C D E F G A B C)

G is not only the 7th of A, but also the 5th of of C (C D E F G A B C)


This whole thing begins to get messy when you start talking about the “quality” of an interval. The quality of an interval has to do with the number of 1/2 steps it takes to get from the first letter to the second letter.

Uh huh.

Let’s use the Chromatic Scale to show this:

A A#/Bb B C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A

The Chromatic Scale is also called a 1/2 step scale because the distance between each note is 1/2 step. It also defines all of the notes in music.

A piano IS a chromatic scale. The white keys are a continuous “diatonic scale” (ABCDEFGABC…). Once you add the black keys, which are the sharps and flats, you have the Chromatic Scale. Here’s how we are going to use it:


E is the 3rd of C

G is the 3rd of E (E F G A B C D E)

But look at these two numeric intervals for a moment. If you look at the Chromatic Scale you will see that the number of 1/2 steps between C and E is 4, and the number of 1/2 steps between E and G is 3. But they are BOTH considered to be 3rds!

This is where the quality of these 3rds come in. The 4 “1/2 step” 3rd is called a “major 3rd”, and the 3 “1/2 step” 3rd is called a minor 3rd. So C to E is a major 3rd, and E to G is a minor 3rd.

In general, when we talk about intervals, we use the letter name including any sharp or flat that it may contain, to get the “number” value. We use the Chromatic Scale to get the “quality”.

For example, an E chord is made up of the following notes:

E G# B

G# is the 3rd of E (E F G…)

B is the 3rd of G# (G A B)

Now if we add the sharp (#) to the G and look at the Chromatic scale, we find that:

E to G# is a major 3rd (4 “1/2” steps)

G# to B is a minor 3rd (3 “1/2” steps)

Now all of this hullabaloo was just for the “3rd”. The other numeric values have their own qualities. I don’t want to get into all of that here in this article.

What you should get out of this at this point is that:

1. Intervals are the building blocks of scales and chords

2. Intervals have both a numeric value and a quality value.

As time goes on, you will learn more and more about intervals. This is just to get you started.

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No More "Cheating" – How to Have an Open Relationship Without Hurt Feelings

Perhaps no word in relationships, including those between gay men, is as inflammatory as “cheating” – the slang to denote one person in a relationship having sex with someone outside of that relationship in a way that too often results in feelings of anger, betrayal, and disappointment in the remaining partner. Yet some would say this dynamic simply borrows from an antiquated heterosexist paradigm, where a “helpless” woman, dependent on her husband for economic and social sustenance, is “scorned” by a philandering man unable to control his lustful desires, and can only regain social standing and dignity by punishing the man in a bitter divorce and alimony arrangement.

In gay male culture, however, more variations on the monogamous relationship are common. A study from 2002 in The Advocate magazine reported that only one-third of gay male couples are sexually exclusive (Advocate Sex Poll, 2002), and that the AIDS epidemic has not changed this basic statistic from previous years. Many circles of gay male friends would casually suggest this percentage is much lower, with a common phrase being, “Do you know any gay couple that is truly monogamous?” Perhaps this somewhat cynical perception is right.

Legendary psychotherapist Michael Shernoff, LCSW, who has been an author, professor, and therapist specializing in gay men’s issues in New York City for over 30 years, wrote about “Negotiated Nonmonogamy and Male Couples” in a recent article for the academic journal, Family Process (Vol. 45, No. 4, 2006, pp. 407-418). Shernoff offers a possible explanation for nonmonogamy in gay male couples in that it is related to gender: that men tend to be more oriented than women toward a recreational approach to sex. He cites researcher Michael Bettinger, who suggests that this trait may be genetically hard-wired in men because it is evident in all human cultures throughout history. Additionally, he cites author Dominic Davies who suggests men may be more able to separate in their minds love from sex, and that gay men (who already defy heterosexist notions just by coming out) develop their own values system, refusing the “patriarchal and capitalist notion of a partner as a possession.”

Shernoff categorizes gay male couples in four subtypes:

1) the sexually exclusive couple (monogamous);

2) the sexually non-exclusive but unacknowledged couple (“cheating”);

3) the primarily sexually exclusive couple, also known as “modified monogamy” (those that perhaps participate in occasional three-ways or group sex together);

4) the sexually non-exclusive acknowledged couple (the open relationship), and

5) non-sexual domestic partners. He describes how for some gay male couples, “fidelity” is defined by the emotional primacy of the relationship, and abiding by whatever rules the couple has agreed upon for how sex outside the relationship should manifest; while “infidelity” means not sex outside the relationship, but breaking the set rules, such as engaging in unprotected sex outside the relationship when it was agreed condoms would be used, or having sex locally when it was agreed they would play with others only while traveling.

Very often in my psychotherapy practice, my gay male clients discuss various concerns about getting their sexual needs met, including the gay couples I see. These couples describe how while their emotional commitments to each other are solid, some long for fulfilling a sexual need that lies outside the desires or even capabilities of their primary partner. This tension brings the couple to conjoint counseling to explore the issues and identify some options to resolve their dilemma.

Others are in counseling because the relationship has been harmed by one or both partners “cheating” on the agreed-upon monogamous arrangement, and they seek help to understand why outside sex was desired. Sometimes this can be about power dynamics or unresolved emotional conflicts between the partners, while other times, perhaps more commonly, it is only about a natural male desire for sexual variety after the initial excitement that characterizes early relationships predictably wanes.

In identifying the possible options, much discussion revolves around how each partner is influenced about sex early on from teachings from his family of origin, culture, religious upbringing, and past relationship experiences, and exploring how the two partners differ in these areas. Understanding how each partner came to his conclusions about preferences, desires, and fears regarding love and sex is a first step toward identifying what new options might work as the couple seeks to make changes that lead to additional emotional and sexual fulfillment.

To explore options for non-monogamy that feel safe and minimize jealousy or threatening feelings, we assess the relationship in general, including items such as domestic chores, work life, finances, routines, shared pastimes, individual health issues, friends and social support, and relationships with the “in-laws.” Next, we explore each partner’s view of the couple’s current sex life – the type, frequency, duration, sexual roles, and levels of satisfaction.

Next, we brainstorm the fantasies of each partner that lead them to consider the desire for opening the relationship to outside partners, including what activities are desired and why, and the characteristics of desired partners (race, size, build, age, even “endowment” or sexual “style”). The positive fantasies of desired activities are considered along with the fears that each partner has about exploring the options, such as jealousy, fears of abandonment, personal safety, HIV/STD risk, and even practical time management of how to play with others while still saving free time to share activities in the relationship.

Part of the work is assessing if the couple is ready to consider a non-exclusive arrangement. Author J. Morin (In the Family, Vol. 4, pp. 12-15) has suggested that a gay male couple is prepared to adjust to non-monogamy as long as

1) both partners want their relationship to remain primary;

2) they have established a reservoir of good will;

3) there are minimal lingering resentments from past hurts/betrayals;

4) the partners are not polar opposites on the monogamy issue;

5) the partners are feeling similarly powerful/autonomous as equal partners in the relationship;

6) each partner has friends and support other than his partner,

7) the partners have a higher-than-average tolerance for change, confusion, anxiety, jealousy, and other uncomfortable feelings; and

8) the couple is merely sexually bored but very secure and loving with each other. When these items are mostly satisfied, a safe exploration of options can begin.

The next step in the counseling process is to discuss the Ideal Proposed Scenario, a time to start the new arrangement, and a time set to evaluate, discuss, make changes, and re-evaluate the arrangement. The final step is having each partner fill out a written exercise called the Outside Sex Contract Agreement. After some time to experiment with the new arrangement, perhaps a couple of months, the couple evaluates their experiences and makes additional changes if necessary, with each partner being careful to be responsive to the concerns of the other to preserve a sense of safety, intimacy, and trust.

With these steps completed, the couple moves forward confidently that they have worked through the conflict regarding outside sex with open, safe communication and confidence that the love they share for each other is secure, while embarking on exciting changes that lead to increased fulfillment and satisfaction in the relationship for each of them – with no more “cheating” dynamics to detract from their quality of life.

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Different Phases of Architectural Services

Architectural Services play an important role in construction of any building or any infrastructure. Such services are best used in the field of construction for marketing purposes. There are wide array of services which helps in creating best designs to enhance buildings, landscape etc. Right from conceptual stage till the time building is constructed Architectural Services play an important role. All designs can be created on computer through pre-built and design software like Revit Architecture, Auto CAD, 3D Studio Max etc.

Conceptual Architectural Design

Conceptual Architectural Design is the first stage of any building or Infrastructure construction phase. Conceptual Design is normally created by an Architect where he designs a building conceptually. Before Revit or Auto CAD came into existence, conceptual designs were done manually on paper, in form of sketches and later drafted. Now, with number of software available today conceptual designing has become much easier.

Construction Drawing and Drafting

After conceptual designing is finalized, process of creating Construction Drawings for the building starts. Construction Drawings are set of drawings created to facilitate construction phase. It consists of complete drawings spanning entire building. This is very crucial for accurate construction. It consists of Roof Plan, Reflected Ceiling Plan, Sections, Elevations, Electrical Plan, Layouts, Site Plan etc. These drawings can either be created using Auto CAD or Revit.

Building Information Modeling

Architectural Building Information Modeling is the most important stage of any Construction project. This process makes construction less time consuming and decreases costing. BIM essentially means collection of all elements and data related to construction of building in a single model. BIM virtually gives a feel of how a model will look and function after construction. Revit Architecture is the most popularly used software to build Architectural Building Information Model.

Architectural 3D Modeling and Rendering

Architectural3D Modeling and Rendering is used for visually enhancing any model or building image. Architects create 3D Model using Revit, Auto CAD 3D, 3D Studio max, Maya etc. These models are rendered to give a photo-realistic feel using V-RAY, Scan line etc. These images can then be used for marketing purposes. One can visually enhance Interior and exterior, Sites, Landscape, Water bodies, sky and light, furniture, products etc. using this software. Architectural 3D Modeling and Rendering is being used extensively by architectural firm, interior designing companies, construction companies etc.

With high level of completion building up with a pressure to save cost, utilization of Architectural Services offers most viable solution to engineering Industry.

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Increase Sales Revenue NOW! Seven Sales Secrets to Increasing Your Sales Volume, Even in a Recession

Marketing is a Science. After 23 years of recruiting sales people, training sales managers, building businesses, and reading hundreds of books, I have narrowed down the following seven (7) critical areas that need to be mastered, for sustained sales growth:

1. Positioning / Branding / Differentiation:

Effectively answering the most important question in the prospect’s mind, “Why should I do business with you (and not your competitor)?” is crucial. So is, a strong “Sales Posture”. Salespeople without a Unique Value Proposition (UVP) often have to resort to price cutting. Begging for business is not a viable sales strategy. Remember, the prospect’s mind works on the W.I.I.F.M. principle (“What’s In It For Me?).

2. Potent Sales Scripts:

Scientifically written, natural sounding and emotionally compelling scripts for Sales Prospecting / Pre-Qualifying, Sales Presentation, Objection Handling, Sales Closing, Following up and FAQs are vital. Good sales scripts will help your salespeople stay on track, ask the right questions, and “sail” into the Close! A written script can also help you train new sales people quickly, and convey a consistently professional image of the company.

3. Cutting Edge Sales Tools:

An “Info Kit” (PDF for emailing, snail-mailing and faxing) is often a must. It should be scientifically designed to push the right Emotional Hot Buttons, and incorporate a strong “Call to Action”. Prospect Databases, a good Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, clearly defined “Steps to the Sale” with corresponding “Actions” logged in the CRM are also important. A good website is a big help.

4. Hire the Right Sales People:

Good sales professionals are very rare and often hard to find. The JOY Tests ™ of Total Sales Ability ™ from Dan Joy, Inc., can help you hire the best salespeople (Top 2%), retain them longer, as well as grow your sales! They can also help you avoid costly hiring mistakes. In the past, sales assessment tools were used primarily by large companies. Now, the fully integrated online sales assessment testing system of Dan Joy, Inc. has brought these crucial sales assessment tools within the easy reach of small to mid-sized businesses, but large companies can use them too. Dan Joy, Inc. offers 10 Free Sales Assessments to qualified businesses (see the link in the Author’s Bio / Resource Box below).

5. Good Sales Leadership:

Selling is one of the hardest things. It is both physically demanding (long hours) and emotionally draining (facing rejection continually). Having your sales team report to someone who has never sold for a living is usually not a good idea. I have seen sales people report to a “non-sales” Plant Manager, CFO, Production Manager, Office Manager, etc., and that is often a recipe for disaster. Regular Sales Meetings (at least once a week), Role Playing (practicing the scripts, objection handling, etc.), Sales Training, Sales Goals expressed in terms of controllable actions (important), ongoing accountability, metrics, reward / correction, motivation / inspiration are all extremely important.

6. Continual Lead Generation:

Your salespeople must always have “several irons in the fire” so they don’t pin all their hopes on just one sale coming through (or feeling dejected if it does not). Multiple sales should be “brewing” at all times. A good, consistent, ongoing Leads Generation program should be in place (Direct Mail, eMarketing, Advertising, Press Releases, etc). If you have a good product or service, get the word out proactively, in large numbers.

7. Acuity:

Observing what is working and what is not, and making ongoing course corrections is vital. Not to mention studying the competition, monitoring the markets, and innovating to stay ahead. Retaining good salespeople is sometimes harder than recruiting them, but treating them right and compensating them fairly would go a long way.


You wanted to know how to increase sales — this is what it will take. If you want to increase sales or grow a business long term even in a recession or down economy, you must master these seven critical areas. This advice and sales tips can help you increase sales revenue steadily. Growing a business requires hard work in addition to just smart work. The sales growth advice above applies to entrepreneurs, small businesses as well as large companies who wish to grow their sales, even though the scale of implementation might differ.

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Marketplace Lending: A Viable Option For Business Capital

In today's world of commercial finance, we are experiencing the New Normal in terms of business financing and how businesses acquire capital for growth and expansion. I largely consider myself an advocate of traditional lending through the use of banks and commercial finance companies due to the lower cost of capital. But, due to the way commerce is conducted in today's world with the use of technology and the fluidity of markets because of increased accessibility provided by the Internet, the need for compatible sources of capital have arrived via the fintech ("financial technology") boom . Enterprising entrepreneurs have recognized a sizeable opportunity in that a majority of small businesses lack the access to capital needed to grow and sustain their businesses that provide jobs and resources to communities throughout the US. I would have laughed wholeheartedly a decade ago if approached with the business model most marketplace lending sources offer to small businesses now. However, I'm the one that's being laughed at by these enterprising firms because via creative destruction mainly exacerbated by the Great Recession, they are filling a relevant need in the market both now and for the foreseeable future. I think it's safe to presume that we're not in Kansas anymore in terms of the traditional way of providing capital to the small business market via banks and commercial finance companies. I don't believe that this model will become obsolete, but I do think that it will begin to decrease in scope as marketplace lending takes on more of a relevancy in the market because the way in which commerce is done today is not the same as it was done a decade ago.

Marketplace Lending as a Viable Lending Source for Firms

Business ROI has do with the strategies and decisions a business owner and his / her team make in order to optimize operating profits for the benefit of the firm and its stakeholders. These methods become more acute once business loans are obtained because there's a requirement to not only repay interest, but also the principal of the loan. The key component of this repayment risk for the business owner is the level and amount of interest charged. Traditional lending sources have been able to provide relatively low-cost business loans, but there's been a couple major downsides: (1) mostly offered to prime customers that have ideal personal and business credit and (2) abnormally long underwriting and decision times even for prime prospects. What happens to those entrepreneurs that are categorized as mid prime prospects with semi-ideal personal and business credit profiles? Most of these prospective borrowers are left to find other ways and means of meeting business capital challenges primarily credit cards and consumer loans that are not ideal in terms of cost, loan term, and repayment structure. Financial technology firms have come along in today's market to provide business loans to viable firms that do not fit into a traditional financing sources "credit box". In other words, there's flexibility in the structure of the loan product. One downside to marketplace lending is on the high cost of capital due to the Peer 2 Peer model which basically means there's no middleman between investors and borrowers. In lieu of the benefits that entrepreneurs receive from a marketplace lending source (flexible underwriting and decision structures, fast application and submission platforms, prompt turnaround and access of funds, etc.), the high cost of capital makes sense. In order to minimize the risk of default, business owners must assess the impact the loan will have on increasing and sustaining free cash flow for both repayment and operational growth. Thus, the business and technical risk of effectively using a marketplace loan is with the entrepreneur in that he / she must earn a higher ROI than the interest cost of the loan in addition to the other operating and capital expenses of the business. Welcome to the New Normal .

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